Hakwiye kugira igikorwa ku itangazamakuru

Prof Shyaka Anastase, Umuyobozi Mukuru wa RGB, urwego rufite mu nshingano zarwo itangazamakuru (Photo/Courtesy)

Inzego za Leta kimwe n’abaturage bose bakeneye itangazamakuru. Uyu muyoboro ni ikiraro gihuza izo nzego zombi kandi ziragikeneye uko byagenda kose.

Iyo urebye gahunda za Guverinoma kuva mu 2010, itangazamakuru ryahawe umwanya ariko ukibaza impamvu ridatera imbere. Hashyizweho inzego z’itangazamakuru ariko ukibaza impamvu abareberera itangazamakuru batatanya imbaraga.

Magingo aya itangazamakuru riri mu biganza bw’inzego eshanu: Urwego rw’Igihugu rw’Imiyoborere (RGB) rwigenga, Inama Nkuru y’Itangazamakuru (MHC), Urwego rw’Igihugu ngenzuramikorere ku mirimo imwe n’imwe ifitiye igihugu akamaro (RURA) rushamikiye ku Biro bya Minisitiri w’Intebe (Primature).

Hari kandi Urwego rw’Abanyamakuru bigenzura (RMC) rwagiyeho nyuma y’amavugurura mu itangazamakuru mu 2013, hakaba n’Ishyirahamwe Nyarwanda ry’Abanyamakuru (ARJ).

Izi mbaraga zose zihurijwe hamwe, dufate urugero rwa RGB na MHC bombi bafite mu nshingano zabo kongerera itangazamakuru ubushobozi, hagize ahavuka ikibazo cyagira aho kibarizwa. Nta wakwita undi bamwana ko iki n’iki cyapfuye habuze uwo kibazwa.

MHC ifite inshingano zo kongerera abanyamakuru ubushobozi, ariko hashingiwe ku kubaha amahugurwa, ahanini yubakiye ku magambo (Theories). Icyakora hari icyatangiye gukorwa, kuko basigaye bafite uburyo bwo kongerera abanyamakuru ubushobozi binyuze mu gutara no gutangaza inkuru (Fieldwork).

Ariko kandi ntibikwiye kugarukira aho gusa, kuko nko mu zindi nzego, abanyamakuru bagombye kuba inzobere mu mwuga binyuze mu nama nkuru y’itangazamakuru. Na bo bakwiye kugira amahirwe yo kubona buruse zo kongera ubumenyi nk’uko mu zindi nzego bigenda.

Nk’uko hanengwa ubumenyi butangwa mu banyeshuri baza ku isoko ry’umurimo, no mu itangazamakuru hakenewe ubumenyingiro bushingiye ku bushakashatsi bw’ibibazo rifite, kugira ngo haboneke ibisubizo binoze.

RGB ifite inshingano yo guteza imbere itangazamakuru muri rusange (Media development), ariko bisa nk’aho ikora inshingano zimwe nk’iza MHC kuko urwego rumwe rwafashe abanyamakuru (Capacity building/media content development), urundi rufata inzu z’itangazamakuru (Capacity building/media business development). Kongerera itangazamakuru ubushobozi ndetse n’iterambere ryaryo, bikwiye guhabwa ikigo kimwe, aho gukomeza kugabagabana ibidahari.

Ubushakashatsi RGB yikorera mu kugaragaza uko itangazamakuru rihagaze ndetse n’ubujyanama butangwa (Rwanda Media Barometer) nabwo ni ingenzi mu iterambere ry’itangazamakuru. Ariko kandi wakwibaza uko uru rwego rukurikirana ibiva mu bushakashatsi n’inama bwatanze (Monitoring and Evaluation) n’icyo rukora nyuma iyo bidakozwe n’inzego bireba.

Inkunga RGB iha ibitangazamakuru, yagombye kuba ari iyo kubafasha gutera intambwe bakagira aho bagera, ndetse ikangana n’igenerwa imiryango itari itegamiye kuri guverinoma, kuko rifite uruhare runini mu iterambere ry’Igihugu, kwimakaza imiyoborere myiza no guteza imbere imibereho myiza y’Abanyarwanda.

RURA ifite mu nshingano zayo guha uburenganzira ibinyamakuru (License) kugira ngo bitangire gukora n’imicungire yabyo (Spectrum management), cyane cyane ibikoresha amajwi gusa n’ibikoresha amajwi n’amashusho. Ariko kandi ibyandika ku mpapuro n’ibikorera kuri murandasi na byo bihabwa uburenganzira bwo gukora nyuma yo kwiyandikisha muri RMC.

Iyi mikoranire y’izi nzego igengwa n’amasezerano (MoU) ateganywa n’itegeko rigenga itangazamakuru ryo mu 2013.

Ariko kandi ikibazo gihari cyane ku maradiyo na televiziyo, wakwibaza uburyo uru rwego-RURA, atari rwo rucuruza iminara, ahubwo igahabwa Ikigo cy’igihugu cy’itangazamakuru –RBA.  Ntibyakumvikana uburyo iyi minara yacuruzwa na RBA kandi ari ibikorwaremezo byavuye mu misoro y’abaturage.

Iki kigo RBA cyahawe uburenganzira bwo gucuruza iyi minara mu gihe na cyo cyagombye kuba kigura n’urundi rwego rwa Leta, kuko ntiyigeze yegurirwa abikorera (Privatization). Bivuze ko nibura RURA yagombye kuba ariyo icuruza iminara, RBA na yo ikajya ku isoko nk’abandi.

ARJ yo mu ntege nke zayo yashoboye gushyiraho ibikorwaremezo bifasha abanyamakuru. Ni intambwe ariko ntibikwiye kugarukira aho gusa. Yagombye gufasha abanyamakuru mu ngendoshuri, bakareba aho itangazamakuru ryateye imbere rigeze (Study tours). Umunyamakuru akeneye kongererwa ubumenyi nk’uko abandi bakozi bo mu zindi nzego babigezwaho.

ARJ yagombye gufasha itangazamakuru, amarembo y’ubucuruzi agafunguka kurushaho, ku buryo utsindiye isoko bidahera mu mpapuro nk’uko bikunze kugenda cyane cyane ku itangazamakuru ryigenga. Hari abaheruka basinya amasezerano, akarinda arangira nta soko bahawe.

RMC kuva igiyeho mu 2013, kugeza twandika iyi nkuru, imaze kwakira ibirego 240. Muri byo ibyakemuwe ni 228. Nta munyamakuru wajyanwe imbere y’inkiko kubera amakosa y’umwuga. Uyu ni umusanzu ukomeye kuri Leta, kuko ibi birego byose byagombye kuba biri mu nkiko.

Kugeza magingo aya, abanyamakuru bahawe amakarita n’uru rwego basaga 700, kugira ngo umurimo bakorera abaturage ubashe kugenzurwa kinyamwuga.

N’ubwo uru rwego rukora ibi, ku giti cyanjye mbona rusa n’umurwayi udashobora kwivuganira na muganga, ahubwo akavugirwa n’umurwaza utifuza ko akira.

Imikorere yarwo ya buri munsi ruyikesha duke tuva mu musanzu w’abanyamakuru, ahasigaye rugategera andi mikoro ava mu baterankunga ariko binyuze muri RGB. Ntibitangaje kubona hari igihe abakozi ba RMC bagira ibirarane by’imishahara, ndetse n’imikorere y’urwego ntigende uko bigombye.

Ibi byagize ingaruka haba ku banyamakuru, ku rwego no ku bakozi. Inteko Rusange z’abanyamakuru ntizishobora guterana ngo bige ku bibazo bibugarije. Urwego ubwarwo hari ibidakorwa neza kubera ko abakozi bamwe bahagaritswe. Ubuzima n’umutekano ku kazi ndetse n’imibereho y’umukozi uri mu birarane by’umushahara byarahungabanye.

Muri gahunda ya Guverinoma 2010-2017 ya manda ya kabiri ya Perezida Paul Kagame, ishingiye ku cyarekezo 2020 (Vision 2020) na gahunda y’imbaturabukungu ya kabiri (EDPRS2), muri porogaramu ya cyenda, havugwamo itangazamakuru.

Havugwamo gukomeza kongerera ubushobozi abanyamakuru hagamijwe kubaka itangazamakuru ry’umwuga. Hari bimwe bikorwa nk’uko nabigaragaje hejuru, ariko kandi umuntu yakwibaza niba abanyamakuru bo mu Rwanda bo badakeneye buruse zo kongera ubumenyi no kuzamuka mu ntera nk’uko abandi bakozi babihabwa.

Ku birebana na gahunda yo kwigenzura kw’abanyamakuru, bivugwa muri porogaramu ya 9 igika cya 39 bagira bati “Gukomeza gushyigikira gahunda yo kwigenzura ku banyamakuru kugira ngo bifashe kugira uruhare mu gukosora amakosa ashobora kugaragara mu itangazamakuru”.

Urwego rwashyizweho nk’uko biteganywa n’itegeko rigenga itangazamakuru ryo mu 2013. Ariko umuntu yakwibaza kugeza ubu ikibura ngo hashyirweho iteka rya Minisitiri ubifite mu nshingano cyangwa se urundi rwego rwemeza ko RMC yagiyeho.

Imyanzuro ya Guverinoma (UPR: Universal Periodic Review 2016), yemeza ko uru rwego ruhabwa ubuzima gatozi kugira ngo rushobore gukora mu bwisanzure. Abanyamakuru ubwabo bateguye Umushinga w’itegeko agaragaza uko urwego rwaba ruteye, ariko waheze mu kabati.

Nk’uko gahunda ya guverinoma 2010-2017 yabiteganyaga, abikorera bashoye imari mu itangazamakuru. Ariko umuntu ntiyabura kwibaza impamvu ibitangazamakuru bidatera imbere nk’izindi nzego z’ubucuruzi.

Sinabura gushimira Ikigo cy’imisoro n’amahoro (RRA), ku biganiro cyagiranye n’abayobozi b’ibitangazamakuru, hakavamo umwanzuro wo gusonerwa ibirarane by’imisoro kugeza mu 2015. Ni intambwe nziza.

N’ubwo bimeze bityo, itangazamakuru ryandika ku mpapuro riracyari mu nzitane y’ibibazo byo kuba nta masoko yo kwamamaza rifite kandi ariyo aritunze. Ikindi gikomeye ni uko amacapiro y’imbere mu gihugu ahenze, ku buryo abandika bahitamo kujyana ibinyamakuru byabo mu macapiro yo mu karere, kuko ibiciro byayo biri hasi cyane kugeza kuri kimwe cya kabiri cy’iby’imbere mu gihugu.

Muri gahunda ya 2017-2024, mu gikorwa cya gatandatu, igaragaza ukongera uruhare rw’abaturage mu kwitabira ibikorwa bigenewe kubateza imbere, ibikorwa by’umwihariko bizakorwa harimo kurushaho kubaka ubushobozi bw’Urwego rw’Abikorera, Itangazamakuru, Imiryango itari iya Leta, Amadini n’Amatorero.

Iyo porogaramu iteganya ko bizatuma izo nzego zirushaho kugira uruhare mu iterambere ry’Igihugu, kwimakaza imiyoborere myiza no guteza imbere imibereho myiza y’Abanyarwanda.

Itangazamakuru, cyane cyane iryigenga, ryari rikwiye gushyirwamo imbaraga nk’izo guverinoma ishyira mu rwego rw’abikorera (PSF) nk’uko bigaragazwa muri Politiki ya Guverinoma yemejwe n’inama y’abaminisitiri ku wa 30 Gicurasi 2011.

Kugira ngo rirusheho kugira uruhare mu iterambere ry’Igihugu, kwimakaza imiyoborere myiza no guteza imbere imibereho myiza y’Abanyarwanda, twafata urugero mu bindi bihugu, ku ruhare rwa Leta mu guteza imbere itangazamakuru.

Mu Buholandi, urwego rw’itangazamakuru ryigenzura ruterwa inkunga na Guverinoma binyuze muri Minisiteri y’ubutabera, kuko uru rwego rufite ubufasha bukomeye mu gutanga ubutabera, Leta itabyivanzemo kugira ngo uburenganzira bw’itangazamakuru buteganywa n’itegeko Nshinga bwubahirizwe.

Mu gihugu cya Ghana (Gana), urwego rw’itangazamakuru ryigenzura ruterwa inkunga na Guverinoma. Urugero ni aho abayobozi barwo ndetse n’abakozi bahabwa ibyangombwa bigenerwa umukozi wa Leta.

Muri Kenya kimwe mu bihugu bigize Umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba, ingengo y’imari ifasha bene uru rwego igenwa na Guverinoma, kandi ntibirubuza gukomeza kugira ubwigenge mu mikorere yarwo. Urugero ni aho Perezida Uhuru Kenyatta yaruregeye amakosa yamwanditsweho kandi rugafata imyanzuro rudashingiye ko ari Perezida wa Repubulika.

Kuri iyi ngingo iyo ucukumbuye neza hari igikorwa mu Rwanda ariko, hakenewe imbaraga kugira ngo uru rwego rusohoze inshingano zarwo nk’uko biteganywa na politiki y’itangazamakuru ndetse n’itegeko rigenga itangazamakuru mu Rwanda.

Itangazamakuru n’ubwo riri mu bucuruzi, rifite uruhare runini mu iterambere ry’igihugu n’imibereho y’abaturage (Public good and social entreprise). Nk’uko byatekerejwe muri Politiki ya Leta, hakwiye kubaho imihigo ya Guverinoma yihariye mu guteza imbere itangazamakuru muri rusange, nk’uko ishyigikira Urwego rw’Abikorera (Private Sector Federation).

Rwanyange Rene Anthere

1 Comment on Hakwiye kugira igikorwa ku itangazamakuru

  1. Njye mbona ikibanze ari ukubaka ubushobozi bw’umunyamakuru mu bunyamwuga no mubushobozi bushingiye Ku ifaranga ndetse numushahara we

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