Ubutumwa bwa Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside mu Kwizihiza ku nshuro ya 71 amasezerano mpuzamahanga yo gukumira no guhana icyaha cya Jenoside

Dr Bizimana Jean Damascene, Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa Komisiyo y'Igihugu yo kurwanya Jenoside (Ifoto/Ububiko)

Mu gihe intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose yabaga hagati ya 1939-1945, Abayahudi barenga miriyoni esheshatu bishwe n’agatsiko k’Abanazi b’Abadage bayobowe na Adolphe Hitler bazira gusa uko baremwe. Muri 1944 umunyamategeko w’umunyamerika Raphael LEMKIN amaze kwitegereza ubwo bwicanyi ndengakamere yahanze ijambo « Jenoside » aryubakiye kw’ijambo ry’ikigereki genos rivuga ubwoko no ku ry’ikilatini caedere risobanura kwica. Yari agamije gushimangira ko icyaha cy’ubwicanyi cyakorewe Abayahudi gitandukanye n’ibindi byaha byibasira inyokomuntu ashingiye ku mugambi wo kubarimbura burundu wari inyuma y’ubwo bwicanyi.

Ku itariki ya 21 Ukuboza 1947, Inteko Rusange y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yemeje ko « Jenoside » ari icyaha mpuzamahanga kigomba gukurikiranwa ku rwego rw’igihugu no ku rwego mpuzamahanga, cyakorwa n’abantu ku giti cyabo cyangwa na za Leta. Iyo Nteko yemeje kandi Amasezerano Mpuzamahanga yo Gukumira no Guhana icyaha cya Jenoside mu cyemezo cyayo 260 A (III) cyo kuwa 9 Ukuboza 1948, atangira gushyirwa mu bikorwa guhera tariki ya 12 Mutarama 1951.

U Rwanda rwashyize umukono ku Masezerano Mpuzamahanga yo Gukumira no Guhana icyaha cya Jenoside tariki ya 16 Mata 1975 kuri Repubulika ya kabiri, ariko rurifata ku ngingo ya 9. Iyi ngingo iteganya ko igihugu gishobora kuregerwa Urukiko Mpuzamahanga rw’Umuryango w’Abibumbye mu gihe bikigaragayeho kudashyira mu bikorwa aya masezerano cyangwa kigaragayemo icyaha cya jenoside n’ibyaha biyishamikiyemo.

Uko kwifata kwerekana ko abayoboraga u Rwanda muri icyo gihe bari bazi ko bashoboraga kubazwa ubwicanyi bwagiye bwibasira Abatutsi kuva 1959 bwashoboraga kuba bwagaragara nka Jenoside ndetse bikanerekana ko u Rwanda rutashakaga kureka politiki yarwo y’ivangura n’amacakubiri rwagenderagaho.

Iyo politiki mbi ni yo yagejeje kuri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi muri 1994 igahitana abarenga miriyoni. Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ni icyaha mpuzamahanga cyemejwe n’Umuryango w’Abibumbye wanashyizeho Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha (ICTR) rwafunze imiryango kuwa 31 Ukuboza 2015 rumaze kuburanisha abantu 75 bahungiye mu mahanga.

Ku wa 16 Kamena 2006, Urukiko Mpuzamahanga Mpanabyaha rwashyiriweho u Rwanda rwemeje ko Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ari ihame mpuzamahanga rizwi na buri wese kandi ritagomba kongera kugibwaho impaka izo ari zo zose. Kuwa 28 Kamena 2011, urwo Rukiko rwafashe icyemezo cya mbere cyo kohereza mu Rwanda Pasitoro Jean Uwinkindi kuburanishwa n’inkiko z’u Rwanda.

Hakurikiyeho n’izindi dosiye z’abashinjwa Jenoside zohererejwe mu Rwanda harimo: Bernard Munyagishari na Ladislas Ntaganzwa bariho baburanishwa n’inkiko z’u Rwanda; na ho abandi 8 barimo Kabuga Félicien, Mpiranya Protais, Bizimana Augustin, Kayishema Fulgence, Munyarugarama Pheneas, Ndimbati Aloys, Sikubwabo Charles na Ryandikayo Charles bakaba bagishakishwa.

Ku wa 16 Mata 2014 Inama y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye Ishinzwe Amahoro ku Isi yafashe icyemezo nº 2150 (2014) gisaba ibihugu byose gufata ingamba zo guhana abakoze Jenoside mu Rwanda babihungiyemo, gushyiraho amategeko ahana ipfobya n’ihakana rya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi no kurwanya FDLR n’indi mitwe ishingiye ku ngengabitekerezo ya Jenoside.

Ku wa 28 Mutarama 2018, Inama y’Inteko Rusange y’Umuryango w’Abibumbye yafashe icyemezo cyo guhindura inyito y’ubwicanyi bwabereye mu Rwanda bukitwa Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi no kwemeza itariki yo kuwa 7 Mata buri mwaka nk’umunsi mpuzamahanga wo kuzirikana iyo Jenoside.

Nyuma ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu Rwanda hakozwe byinshi mu guhangana n’ingaruka nyinshi yasize, uhereye ku guhana abakoze ibyaha bya Jenoside mu rwego rwo guca umuco wo kudahana. Urwego rw’ubutabera rwari rwarashegeshwe rwongeye kwiyubaka binyuze mu guhugura abacamanza, gushyiraho amategeko atandukanye agamije kunoza imiterere n’imikorere y’ubucamanza. Umwihariko wabaye imirimo y’Inkiko Gacaca zaburanishije imanza hafi miliyoni ebyiri hagati ya 2002 na 2012. Byongeye, muri 2008 u Rwanda rwashyize umukono ku ngingo y’Amasezerano yavuzwe haruguru abategetsi ba Leta za kera bari barifasheho.

Nyuma yo guhagarika Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi hatangiye ibikorwa bibi by’abayihakana n’abayipfobya, haba mu gihugu no hanze yacyo. Zimwe mu ngingo abahakana bashingiraho ni ukuvuga ko itateguwe, ko mu Rwanda habaye isubiranamo ry’amoko atari Jenoside no kuvuga ko habaye Jenoside ebyiri (Ni ukuvuga iyakorewe Abatutsi n’iyakorewe Abahutu mu Rwanda no muri Kongo).

Abapfobya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi bakunze kunenga imibare itangwa y’abishwe, gutanga ishingiro ryayo cyangwa kuyoroshya, guhisha cyangwa konona ibimenyetso byayo no guhohotera abacitse ku icumu. Hariho n’abanyapolitiki bayikoresha mu nyungu zabo basenya ibyagezweho.

Mu Rwanda ibyo bikorwa bikunda kugaragara cyane mu gihe cyo kwibuka (Urugero muri 2019 hagaragaye abantu 227), mu gihe mu mahanga bigaragara cyane muri bamwe mu Banyarwanda bahungiyeyo biganjemo abagize uruhare muri Jenoside bafatanya n’abanyamahanga biganjemo abanyamakuru, abanditsi, abanyapolitiki, abarimu ba kaminuza n’abashakashatsi.

N’ubwo u Rwanda rumaze gukora byinshi mu gushyira mu bikorwa Amasezerano Mpuzamahanga yo Gukumira no Guhana Icyaha cya Jenoside cyane cyane guhana ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside n’ibyaha bifitanye isano na yo nk’uko biri mu Itegeko Nº 59/2018 ryo kuwa 22 Kanama 2018, haracyariho inzitizi zikomeye kubera uburyo abayikwirakwiza mu mahanga bakoramo bugenda buhindura isura kandi bwifashisha iterambere rigezweho.

Muri iki gihe hari abantu ku giti cyabo n’imitwe y’iterabwoba yiyise P5 ibumbye udutsiko turwanya Leta y’u Rwanda kandi bamwe mu bayigize bashinjwa uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi (FDLR/RUD-Urunana). Hari n’amashyirahamwe y’abaharanira kwemerwa kwa Jenoside yakorewe Abahutu akorera i Burayi.

U Rwanda ruzakomeza gushyigikira ibikorwa n’ingamba bigamije kurwanya Jenoside n’ingengabitekerezo yayo aho ariho hose ku isi no guteza imbere indangagaciro zubaha ubuzima n’ikiremwamuntu muri rusange nk’uko rwabigaragaje rwakira impunzi z’Abanyafurika bavanywe muri Libiya.

Muri iki gihe isi yose yizihiza ku nshuro ya 71 isinywa ry’Amasezerano Mpuzamahanga yo Gukumira no Guhana Icyaha cya Jenoside, Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside (CNLG) irasaba Abanyarwanda bose cyane urubyiruko kugira uruhare rufatika mu kurwanya ingengabitekerezo ya Jenoside n’ibyaha biyishamikiyeho, rwirinda amacakubiri, rwitabira ibikorwa byo kwibuka Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, rwamagana abayihakana bakanayipfobya kandi rugira uruhare mu kwandika no gusigasira amateka ya Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi mu masomo n’ubushakashatsi bakora.

Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside iributsa ibihugu bicumbikiye abicanyi bagize uruhare muri Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi ko bikwiye kubahiriza amategeko mpuzamahanga bikabacira imanza cyangwa bikabohereza mu Rwanda. Kugeza ubu u Rwanda rumaze kohereza impapuro 1144 zishakisha abakoze Jenoside bari mu mahanga. Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside irasaba kandi ibihugu byose biha urubuga abapfobya n’abahakana Jenoside yakorewe Abatutsi, cyane cyane bimwe mu bihugu by’i Burayi, ko bikwiye kubahiriza Icyemezo n°2150 bigahana abo bantu.

Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside iboneyeho kumenyesha abantu bose ko hateganyijwe ibiganiro bizatangwa muri za kaminuza n’amashuri makuru yose yo mu Rwanda mu Ukuboza 2019, ikaba ihamagarira abanyamakuru gukurikirana icyo gikorwa no kugitangaza. Ku mugereka murasangaho urutonde rw’ayo mashuri n’igihe ibiganiro bizatangirwa.

Dr. BIZIMANA Jean Damascène

Umunyamabanga Nshingwabikorwa wa Komisiyo y’Igihugu yo Kurwanya Jenoside (CNLG)

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