#COVID-19: Hatagize igikorwa vuba abakozi basaga miliyoni bazabura akazi

Mu Rwanda abakozi bose bagera kuri 3.568.934 muri bo 1.423.059 ni abagore kandi bari mu bigo byigenga kuko abakora muri Leta bagera ku 85.369.

Umubare munini w’abakozi ugaragara mu bigo by’abikorera. Muri rusange bihariye abarenga 90 ku ijana by’abakozi bose bari mu gihugu. Kubera ko icyorezo cya COVID-19 cyazahaje ubukungu, hatagize igikorwa mu maguro mashya, abakozi bagera kuri 1.036.640 babura akazi.  Ibi ntibyagira ingaruka mu rwego rw’abikorera gusa, ahubwo byakoma mu nkokora na gahunda za Leta. Igipimo cy’izamuka ry’ubukungu, uyu mwaka kikazagabanyukaho 3.5 ku ijana.

Nk’uko bigaragazwa n’ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare (NISR), muri raporo y’igihembwe cya mbere 2020 igaragaza uko umurimo uhagaze, mu Rwanda habarurwa abakozi 3.568.934, muri bo abakorera Leta ni 205.105, batagera ku 10 ku ijana by’abakozi bose.

Bigaragara ko urwego rw’abikorera arirwo rufite abakozi benshi barenga 90 ku ijana, ni ukuvuga 3.181.572, muri bo abagore bangana na 1.423.059. Muri aba bakozi bose, abahangayitse bikomeye ni abo muri serivisi y’amahoteli n’ubukerarugendo, abakozi bo muri mine na Kariyeri, abo mu nganda zimwe na zimwe, abo mu bwubatsi, abakora mu burezi ariko mu bigo byigenga, abari mu buhanzi, imyidagaduro n’ubugenzi n’abakora indi mirimo ariko ari ba nyakabyizi cyangwa bahembwa ku kwezi biganjemo abo mu bwikorezi.

Abakozi bagera hafi kuri 1/3 cy’abakozi mu Rwanda bashobora kujya mu bushomeri niba ntagikozwe ngo ibigo bigobokwe (Isoko y’imibare/NISR)

Kuva tariki ya 14 Werurwe 2020, servisi zose zarafunze, abo mu mahoteli n’ubukerarugendo, abo mu mashuri yigenga, inganda n’ubwubatsi bahise bihutira gusubika amasezerano y’umurimo. Nubwo hari serivisi zakomorewe kuva ku wa 4 Gicurasi 2020, nyuma y’iminsi 45 ya #Guma mu rugo, abahagarikiwe amasezeraano biyongeraho abari mu buhanzi, imyidagaduro n’ubugenzi n’abakora indi mirimo imwe n’imwe kuko bo ntibarakomorerwa.

Bikomeje kuri uru rwego, abakozi bagera kuri 1.036.640 babura akazi kandi bikaba bitagira ingaruka gusa ku bakora mu bigo byigenga ahubwo byagera no mu bakozi ba Leta barimo abakora mu bwikorezi no mu bukerarugendo.

Raporo ya PSF yo muri Werurwe 2020, igaragaza ko Urwego rw’amahoteli n’ubukerarugendo bugarijwe n’ibibazo ku buryo nibura 82 ku ijana (82%) y’abakozi bashobora kubura akazi. Ibigo 98 ku ijana (98%) byugarijwe n’ibibazo by’ubukungu.

Hakwiye ikigega nzahurabukungu cy’ingoboka mu rwego rw’abikorera

Abahanga mu gusesengura ibirebana n’ubukungu, Urugaga rw’Abikorera (PSF) n’Urugaga rw’amasendika y’abakozi mu Rwanda, basanga kubera COVID-19 ubukungu bwarazahaye cyane ku buryo hatagize igikorwa hashira nibura imyaka itanu abantu babeshejweho n’imfashanyo. Bavuga ko igikwiye ari uko Leta yashyiraho ikigega cy’ingoboka kizatanga inkunga nibura ya 50 ku ijana (50%), igice gisigaye (50%) kikazatangwa nk’inguzanyo yoroheje. Bavuga ko ibi byafasha ibigo kutirukana abakozi, byagabanya ubushomeri bityo ntihabe ihungabana rikomeye mu rwego rw’umurimo.

Teddy Kaberuka ni inzobere akaba n’umusesenguzi mu bukungu. Mu kiganiro n’Ikinyamakuru Panorama, yavuze ko kubera COVID-19 ubukungu bwahungabanye haba aho u Rwanda rwohereza ibicuruzwa ndetse n’aho rubikura. Ibyo bikaba byarateye igihombo kinini abikorera.

Agira ati “Kugira ngo abantu bongere gukora neza igihombo nacyo kikagabanya ubukana kugira ngo bitazagira n’ingaruka mu gihe kizaza, gushyiraho ikigega cy’ingoboka byagabanya iyirukanwa ry’abakozi kandi bikorohereza abakoresha kubahemba. Hakwiyongeraho n’itangwa ry’akazi. Bitagenze bityo abashomeri bakwiyongera…”

Kaberuka akomeza avuga ko isoko mpuzamahanga ryahungabanye, hakwiye gutekerezwa ibyo u Rwanda rwakwikorera haterwa ingabo mu bitugu ibikorerwa mu Rwanda (Made in Rwanda). Avuga ko bidakozwe kuzanzamuka k’ubukungu bishobora gufata nibura imyaka itanu.

Ntagengerwa Theoneste, Umuvugizi w’Urugaga rw’abikorera (PSF), avuga ko harimo kwiga ku bufatanye na Guverinoma uburyo hashyirwaho ikigega cyo gufasha abikorera bahuye n’ibibazo bijyanye n’amafaranga kandi bayakeneye byihutirwa kugira ngo bakomeze bakore. Avuga kandi ko bidakozwe habaho iyirukanwa mu kazi ry’abakozi, igihombo no gukoma mu nkokora iterambere ry’ubukungu.

Agira ati “Turifuza kubona amafaranga byihuse, kuko hari ibigo bishobora kumara igihe kinini bidakora cyangwa se bitaragera ku rwego byari bigezeho kugira ngo bishobore gusubiza ibibazo by’ubukungu. Ariko kandi hari n’ibyahombye bisaba ko bizongera gutangira bushyashya, bisaba kandi ko abafite ibitekerezo by’imishinga na bo bagomba gufashwa…”

Abakozi ba Leta ntibagera no ku 10 ku ijana by’abakozi bose bari mu gihugu (Isoko y’imibare/NISR)

Biraboneye Africain, Umunyamabanga Mukuru w’Urugaga rw’amasendika y’abakozi mu Rwanda (CESTRAR) na we avuga ko hakwiye gutekerezwa uburyo bwihuse bwatuma hatabaho abashomeri benshi, kuko abikorera aribo bafite umwanya munini mu gutanga akazi mu Rwanda.

Agira ati “Hamaze igihe hagaragara bamwe mu bakoresha batangiye guhagarika by’agateganyo amasezerano y’akazi bari bafitanye n’abakozi bashingiye ku ihagarikwa ry’imwe mu mirimo rishingiye ku ngamba zo guhangana na COVID – 19, abandi bagashyira abakozi mu kiruhuko gishingiye ku mpamvu z’ubukungu cyangwa za tekinike, cyangwa bagashyira abakozi mu kiruhuko cy’umwaka ku ngufu. Ibikorwa nk’ibi byongera umubare w’abagerwaho n’ingaruka zikomeye cyane kuko bikorwa hatubahirijwe inzira ziteganywa n’amategeko agenga umurimo mu Rwanda.”

Akomeza agira ati “Goverinema guteganya ikigega cyihaririye cyazagoboka ibigo, cyane cyane ibito n’ibiciriritse, byaba byaragizweho ingaruka n’icyorezo cya COVID-19 kuzashobora kongera gukora neza hagamijwe kuzamura ubukungu kandi abakozi ntibatakaze imirimo n’imishahara yabo.”

Amafaranga yava he kandi yahabwa bande?

Abahanga mu by’ubukungu baganiriye n’Ikinyamakuru Panorama, bavuga ko kugira ngo ikigega cyo kuzahura ubukungu kigeho, byagirwamo uruhare na Guverinoma n’abikorera, ariko ijwi ryabo rikagira nibura 70 ku ijana.

Amafaranga yo kugishyiramo yakomoka ku mpano n’inguzanyo igihugu gihabwa n’amahanga, gukora ku mafaranga ari mu bwizigame bumwe na bumwe igihugu gifite nko mu Kigega agaciro (AgDF) ndetse na RNIT, hakiyongeraho amafaranga y’ubwiteganyirize bw’izabukuru ari mu Kigo cy’igihugu cy’ubwiteganyirize.

Nk’uko bigarukwaho na Teddy Kaberuka na Theoneste Ntagengerwa, icyo kigega nticyaba icyo gutanga inkunga gusa ahubwo hari uburyo byakorwa. “50 ku ijana ibigo byayahabwa nk’inkunga andi 50 ku ijana bikayahabwa nk’inguzanyo yoroheje kwishyura kuko hatasabwa inyungu nk’iz’amabanki kuko yo akora ubucuruzi.”

Bavuga ko ibigo byabona ayo mafaranga yahabwa ibigo byemewe n’amategeko kandi bisanzwe byishyura imisoro ya Leta, bifite abakozi bateganyirizwa kandi batanga imisoro mu kigo cy’igihugu cy’imisoro n’amahoro. Yahabwa kandi abacuruzi n’abanyenganda bato ariko bubahirije amategeko kandi hagafasha abafite ibitekerezo by’imishinga y’iterambere. “Byose byakorwa mu biganiro bihuza Urwego rw’abikorera na Leta.”

Uruhande rwa Leta

Tariki 27 Mata 2020, mu kiganiro n’abanyamakuru, Perezida Paul Kagame yavuze ko igihugu kizareba uko gihangana n’ingaruka za Koronavirusi ku buzima bw’abaturage n’ibijyanye n’ubucuruzi ndetse n’ubukungu. Yavuze ko ikigereranyo cyo kuzamuka k’ubukungu cyari kitezwe kizagabanukaho nibura 3,5 ku ijana (%).

Yagize ati “Twagizweho ingaruka, ndetse bimwe bizakorwa ntibizaba mu buryo bwari buteganyijwe, tuzareba uko tuzahura ibintu, turareba uko twazahura ubucuruzi, ibisohoka hanze, uko twazahura ubukerarugendo, bizakorwa gahoro gahoro, turebe uko ubuzima busubira mu buryo, mu bice byinshi by’ubuzima, mu kubaka, mu ngufu, mu bucukuzi n’ibindi, ntabwo turebe gusa buri rwego rw’ubuzima uko bwasubira mu buryo tunareba uko twabona amafaranga yo gushyiramo nk’uko ruyakeneye.”

Yasabwe ko harebwa amafaranga u Rwanda rukeneye n’aho azava, kuko umugabane wa Afurika ukeneye arenze miliyari 100 z’amadolari ndetse ashobora kurenga nk’uko impuguke zibigaragaza. Avuga ko u Rwanda rubonye nibura nka miliyari imwe y’amadolari rwabasha guhangana n’ingaruka za COVID-19.

Ku birebana n’Ikigega cyo kuzahura ubukungu mu rwego rw’abikorera, Minisitiri w’Uburuzi n’Inganda, Soraya Hakuziyaremye, mu kiganiro yagiranye na RBA ku wa 5 Gicurasi 2020, yavuze ko bari mu biganiro n’Urugaga rw’abikorera kugira ngo barebe icyakorwa.

Yagize ati “Hari gahunda y’Ikigega kigomba gufasha abacuruzi bahuye n’ingaruka nyinshi, kuko hari amafaranga yabafasha kubona uko bishyura abakozi no kutabirukana, kugira ngo twese dufatanye uru rugamba, abantu bose bumve ko ari urwabo.”

Umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’ubukungu u Rwanda rwari rwagaragaje mu mwaka wa 2019, uzakomwa mu nkokora n’icyorezo cya COVID-19, ku buryo aho kuba 8 ku ijana (8%) buzagabanyuka kugeza kuri 3.5 ku ijana (3.5%) mu gihe IMF yo isanga buzazamuka ku gipimo cya 5.1 ku ijana (5.1%) gusa.

Imibare y’Ikigo cy’Igihugu cy’Ibarurishamibare (NISR) yerekana ko ubukungu bw’u Rwanda mu 2019 bwazamutse ku gipimo cya 9.4 ku ijana, mu gihe umusaruro w’inganda wari wazamutse ku gipimo cya 17.7 ku ijana; na ho uwa serivisi uzamuka ku gipimo cya 10.6 ku ijana.

Ikinyuranyo kiri mu buhahirane hagati y’u Rwanda n’ibindi bihugu mu mwaka wa 2019, cyari cyongeye kuzamuka ku gipimo cya 16.3 ku ijana, bitewe nuko ibitumizwa hanze byari byazamutse ku gipimo cya 10.6 ku ijana ugereranije n’izamuka rya 3.4 ku ijana gusa ry’ibyoherezwayo.

Nubwo byari bimeze bityo, icyorezo cya COVID-19 nticyoroheye ibyo byiciro byose kuva cyatangira gukwira Isi yose kuva mu ntangiriro z’uyu mwaka wa 2020, ku buryo ubukungu bwahungabanye bikomeye.

Rwanyange Rene Anthere

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