Ubuhake mu Rwanda rwo hambere (Igice cya mbere)

Abanditsi benshi, ari Abihayimana ndetse n’abakoloni, banditse ku buhake, kandi aba bose babusobanura ku buryo butandukanye. Bamwe babusonura nk’igikoresho Abatutsi bifashishije kugira ngo bahindure Abahutu abagaragu, abandi bakemeza ko bwari bumwe mu buryo  Abanyarwanda bakoreshaga kugira ngo babashe kugurana ibyo badafite byabaga bifite agaciro gakomeye cyane icyo gihe, kuko mu Rwanda rwo hambere nta mafaranga yabagaho, kandi ubukungu bw’icyo gihe bukaba bwari bushingiye ku nka, bityo n’ubuhake mu Rwanda ahanini bukaba bwari bushingiye ku nka.

Umwanditsi Nizeyimana Innocent, mu gitabo cye yise “Ubumwe bw’Abanyarwanda mu mateka yabo, Igice cya mbere ‘Ubukoloni n’amacakubiri mu Rwanda”, twifashishije, agaragaza ko isesengura ry’izo nyandiko hamwe n’amakuru yakuwe mu bantu batandukanye barimo n’ababukoze, bifasha gusobanura ubuhake icyo ari cyo, uwashoboraga guhakwa cyangwa kugira Abagaragu, ibyiza n’ibibi by’ubuhake, igihe bwaba bwaratangiriye ndetse n’uko bwarangiye.

Ubuhake ni iki?

Ubukungu bwo mu Rwanda rwo hambere bwari bushingiye cyane cyane ku buhinzi n’ubworozi, uretse ko hari n’imyuga imwe n’imwe yakorwaga n’Abanyarwanda bake nko gucura, kuboha n’ibindi.

Muri iyi myuga yose yari itunze Abanyarwanda, ubworozi bwazaga ku isonga kuko umutu  yitwaga umukire bitewe n’umubare w’inka afite, akaba ari na byo bimushira mu rwego uru n’uru.

Ibi byemezwa na Jan Vansina aho agira ati “Mu Kinyejana cya XVIII ubukungu bwabarwaraga mu nka, kuko ari zo zakobwaga abageni ndetse zikanakoreswa mu kugurana ibintu, ku buryo ihene cyangwa amasuka byifashishwaga kubera amaburakindi. Uwabaga rero adafite inka, kugira ngo azibone yagombaga kujya kuzihakirwa ku uzifite.”

Mu gusobanura ubuhake icyo ari cyo, Umwanditsi Kagame Alegisi avuga ko bwari amasezerano yihariye yakorwaga hagati y’abantu babiri. Muri ayo masezerano shebuja yiyemezaga guha umugaragu inka imwe cyangwa nyinshi, ariko nanone akiyemeza kumurinda no kumuba hafi mu bibazo byose yashoboraga kuba yahura na byo.

Umugaragu na we yiyemezaga gukora imirimo yumvikanyeho na shebuja kandi ikaba idashobora kubangamira ubuzima bwe. Akomeza avuga ko aya masezerano yashoboraga guseswa babyumvikanyeho, maze akanzura avuga ko byari nk’umuco, mu rwego rw’ubukungu n’imibanire ndetse n’imibereho myiza.

Biragaragara rero ko ubuhake yari amasezerano yakorwaga hagati y’umutunzi w’inka n’uwabaga ayikeneye. Ufite inka yabaga akeneye amaboko, naho utayifite, uretse no kuba ashaka inka, yabaga akeneye n’icyubahiro n’umutakano kubera kumva ko afite umuhatse, ushobora kumutabara mu makuba cyangwa mu karengane. Ushaka inka yitwaga umugaragu naho uyimuha akitwa Shebuja.

Umwanditsi Maquet Jean Jacques mu gitabo cye “Le Système des relations sociales dans le Rwanda ancien”, asobanura ko Uhuhake bwakorwaga ku bushake bw’umuntu bitewe n’inyungu yabaga akeneye kubuvanamo, kandi igihe yabonaga atagikeneye guhakwa na Shebuja bafitanye amasezerano, ayo masezerano yashoboraga guseswa.

Uyu mwanditsi akomeza avuga ko uwabaga afite abagaragu benshi, kubagabanya imirimo byashingiraga ku bushobozi bwabo, aho gushingira ku nkomoko cyangwa ku rwego yabaga akomokamo.

Igihe umugaragu yamaraga kwa Shebuja (gucyura igihe) na cyo nticyabaga ari kirekire. Ngo cyavaga ku kwezi kugera ku mezi atatu. Icyakora Umugaragu wanze kubahiriza amasezerano yamburwaga inka zose yakomoye ku buhake, akaba ari byo bitaga “kumunyaga”.

Iyo yabaga afite ize ku giti cye atakomoye ku buhake, tuvuge wenda yarazikuye mu myaka ye yagiye asarura cyangwa yarazikomoye ku mirima ye yatanze, cyangwa se hari abagiye bazimugabira, yarazigabiwe n’umwami kubera kwitwara neza ku rugamba; habagaho kuzivangura. Icyo gihe ize bwite zigasigara naho izo yavanye ku buhake zigasubizwa Shebuja. Nicyo bitaga “gucisha igikingisoho hagati”.

Kunyagwa kandi ntibyakorerwaga abo mu rwego rw’Abahutu gusa, n’abo mu rwego rw’Abatusi kandi bakomeye baranyagwaga. Urugero ni uvugwa mu gitabo cya Nduwayezu Augustin, cyitwa “Imburagihana, Urubanza rwa Sebahutu na Sebatutsi” aho agira ati “Abigeze kumva Rudahigwa Mutara III yirahira mu muhigo iyo yahamyaga inyamaswa, yagiraga ati ‘Nkwice umuhutu wa Rwabutogo’. Abazi ibye neza bazi ko kera Rwabutogo yari amuhatse, yaranamugabiye inyana z’amashashi 40 n’imfizi y’urutare, Kayondo nyirarume amaze kumunyaga (ubwo yari ataraba umwami).”

Birazwi ko Rudahigwa yanyazwe na Kayondo mu 1929, ku buryo yanarwanije cyane ikifuzo abakoloni b’Ababiligi bari bafite cyo kumugira umwami, nyuma akaza gutsindwa kuko Rudahigwa yaje kuba umwami mu 1931.

Amaze kuba  umwami rero, Rudahigwa na we yaciye Kayondo, amucira ahitwa ku Rukiramende, ubu ni mu karere ka Bugesera. (Nta wamenya niba kwari ukwihorera).

Biragaragara rero ko n’Abatutsi bakomeye bahakwaga kandi bakananyagwa nk’aboroheje.  Uhatswe wese yitwaga umuhutu w’umuhatse, nk’uko Rudahigwa ahatswe yari umuhutu wa Shebuja Rwabutogo nk’uko yabyirahiraga. Ba Shebuja bitaga Abagaragu babo Abahutu, kabone n’iyo babaga bari mu rwego rw’Abatutsi cyangwa se banavukana.

Mu 1941 Umwami yashyizeho itegeko risobanura inshingano z’Umugaragu n’iza Shebuja. Mu 1942 nibwo hagiyeho itegeko rivuga ko Umugaragu na Shebuja bagomba kujya bagabana bakaringaniza (50%) cyangwa umugaragu akamburwa ku nka yagabanye bitewe n’uburemere bw’amakosa yakoze.

Biracyakomeza…

Byakusanyijwe na Uwimbabazi Sarah

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